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GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
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GMS Interneer Co., Ltd. is a solution provider, a representative, and a trusted partners to oil & gas equipment users in Thailand as well as world-class manufacturers worldwide.
Serving end users, we look for innovation and solutions from world class engineering Equipment Company to ensure the specific need is met. Partnering with worldwide manufacturers, we look for business opportunity by utilizing technical strong point of each product to complement and to enhance our customer production.
บริษัท จี เอ็ม เอส อินเทอร์เนียร์ จำกัด
อาคารซันทาวเวอร์สบี ชั้น 28 เลขที่ 123
ถนนวิภาวดีรังสิต แขวงจอมพล เขตจตุจักร
GMS Interneer Co.,Ltd.
28th Floor, No. 123 Suntowers Building B
Vibhavadi-Rangsit Road, Chompol,
Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900
Email : firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel : +66 (0)98 967 6383
Using Cryogenic tank and maintenance
Liquefied gases are utilized in a variety of industries, including metal processing, medical technology, electronics, water treatment, energy production, and food processing. Today, an increasing number of these industrial gases are supplied to clients in liquid form at cryogenic temperatures, allowing them to be stored on-site for subsequent use.
Cryogenic tanks are used to keep cryogenic liquids safe. Cryogenic liquids are usually liquefied gases with temperatures of -150 °C or below. Oxygen, argon, nitrogen, hydrogen, and helium are all common byproducts. Cryogenic tanks may also be used to store liquified gases, such as liquefied natural gas (LNG), carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide. These are gas used in a variety of industries such as metal processing, medical technology, electronics, water treatment, energy production, and the food industry. Cryogenic liquids are also utilized in low temperature cooling applications such as engineering shrink fitting, food freezing, and bio-sample storage.
Cryogenic tanks are thermally insulated, usually with a vacuum jacket, and are developed and built to exacting standards in accordance with international design regulations. They may be stationary, mobile, or transportable.
Static cryogenic tanks are intended for use in a permanent position; however, transportable compact tanks placed on wheels for use in workshops and labs are included. Because static cryogenic tanks are usually classed as pressure vessels, new tanks and their related systems will be built and installed in compliance with the Pressure Equipment (Safety) Regulations. Non-pressurised open neck vessels (Dewar flasks) are also available for applications needing direct access to the liquid. To suit the varied needs of the users, the tanks are available in a variety of sizes, pressures, and flow rates. Tanks used to transport cryogenic liquids must conform with the Carriage of Dangerous Goods and Use of Transportable Pressure Equipment Regulations.
Cryogenic tank use, operation, and maintenance
Cryogenic Liquid Vacuum Storage Tank
Cryogenic tanks must be operated and maintained in accordance with all applicable laws, such as the Pressure Systems Safety Regulations for static tanks and the Carriage of Dangerous Goods and Use of Transportable Pressure Equipment Regulations for transportable tanks. Cryogenic tanks must be maintained and handled by qualified individuals.
The Regulations require cryogenic tanks to undergo regular inspection, routine maintenance, and periodic formal examination for static tanks. An inspection and maintenance schedule should be developed to guarantee that the tank is in safe working order during official examination periods. This will comprise a Written Scheme of Examination to be developed by a competent person(s), as well as periodic formal exams to be held in line with the scheme.
Transportable tanks need periodic inspection and testing, which may only be performed by an Inspection Body authorized by the National Competent Authority, Department for Transport, in every country.
All inspections, exams, and tests are recorded, and records must be maintained throughout the tank’s entire life.
Cryogenic tank users and owners have legal obligations and a duty of care to ensure that their equipment is maintained and operated safely. A gas provider will only fill a tank after determining that it is safe to do so. Routine safety checks must be performed by the user. A little amount of icing and ice may be seen while in use. Small amounts of ice should not be a reason for worry, but the amount of ice should be checked on a regular basis. If ice continues to accumulate, de-icing should be performed to avoid excessive ice accumulation
Repair and modification of cryogenic tanks
LNG Cryogenic Liquid Lorry Tanker
Any repair or modification to a cryogenic tank must be carried out exclusively by a qualified repairer in accordance with the design codes to which it was built, taking current rules and legislation into consideration. Such repairs or changes must not jeopardize the integrity of the structure or the functioning of any protective measures. All repairs and changes must be recorded and maintained on file for the life of the tank.
Revalidation of cryogenic tanks
Cryogenic tanks must be evaluated on a regular basis to verify that they are safe for ongoing use. A Competent Person shall determine the revalidation period, which shall not exceed 20 years. Because of the nature of their function, mobile tanks should be rented for a shorter length of time. When a tank is revalidated, a report is generated that must be maintained alongside the tank data for the duration of the tank’s life.
Cryogenic tank disposal
Because certain cryogenic tanks contain dangerous materials in their vacuum area, such as perlite, tanks should only be disposed of by a qualified and experienced disposal firm. As pressure equipment, all equipment must be made non-reusable.
What is the operation of a CHP power plant ?
Cogeneration is the simultaneous production of two or more types of energy from a single fuel source. It is also known as combined heat and power, distributed generation, or recycled energy. Cogeneration power plants are typically 50 to 70 percent more efficient than single-generation facilities. In practice, cogeneration is the utilization of what would otherwise be wasted heat (such as a manufacturing plant’s exhaust) to generate extra energy advantage, such as heat or electricity for the building in which it is running. Cogeneration is beneficial to both the bottom line and the environment since recycling waste heat prevents other polluting fossil fuels from being burnt.
Although combined heat and power (CHP) technology is often referred to as cogeneration, there are significant distinctions. Cogeneration is the process by which a simple cycle gas turbine generates electricity and steam, as well as steam utilized in other processes such as drying. The steam, however, is not utilized to power a steam turbine.
CHP combined-cycle power plants may generate both electricity and usable heat energy from a single fuel. Thermal energy (steam or hot water) collected may be utilized for operations such as heating and cooling, as well as generating electricity for various industrial uses. CHP is used by manufacturers, municipalities, commercial buildings, and institutions such as universities, hospitals, and military sites to cut energy costs, improve power dependability, and minimize carbon emissions.
What is the process of cogeneration ?
A cogeneration plant is similar to a CHP plant in that it generates both electricity and heat. Cogen technology, on the other hand, differs from CHP in that it generates energy using a simple cycle gas turbine. The exhaust energy from the gas turbine is then utilized to generate steam. The steam is then utilized entirely in other processes, rather from being channeled to operate a steam turbine as in CHP.
What is the operation of a CHP power plant ?
A CHP power plant is a decentralized, energy-efficient way of producing heat and electricity. CHP plants may be installed in a single building or business, or they can provide electricity for a district or utility.
In CHP, a fuel is utilized to power the primary mover, which generates both electricity and heat. The heat is then utilized to bring water to a boil and create steam. Some of the steam is utilized to power a process, while the rest is used to power a steam turbine, which generates more power. In a cogen application, the steam is completely used in a process that generates no extra electricity.
Advantages of Combined Heat and Power
When compared to traditional energy generation, a CHP power plant may provide many benefits and advantages, including:
- Greater efficiency: CHP generates both electricity and heat while using less fuel than conventional energy plants. Furthermore, it collects heat and steam to produce extra power, reducing the demand for fuel even further.
- Lower emissions: Because CHP systems consume less fuel, they may decrease greenhouse gas emissions and other air pollutants.
- Lower running expenses: The efficiency of CHP lowers down operating costs and may offer a hedge against rising energy prices.
- Dependability: Because CHP is an onsite energy plant, it reduces dependence on the energy grid and may provide greater energy security and reliability of power generation even in the event of a catastrophe or grid interruption.
- District heating: Cogeneration systems are used in district heating power plants to supply both energy and heating to local facilities and residences. Unused steam is channeled to generate extra electricity when a CHP system is utilized for district heating.
- Industrial manufacturing: Industrial CHP plants enable businesses that use a lot of energy to generate their own steady supply of electricity while improving efficiency and lowering fuel usage. CHP systems may power a broad range of industrial and manufacturing operations while also producing usable energy such as high-pressure steam, process heat, mechanical energy, or electricity.
- Commercial structures: From commercial office buildings and airports to casinos and hotels, CHP plants assist to provide clean, dependable electricity that helps fulfill baseload needs while lowering energy costs. Steam heats and cools the environment while also generating energy to power lights and electronics.
- Institutions: Colleges and universities, hospitals, jails, military posts, and other institutions depend on CHP plants to fulfill their electrical and thermal energy requirements, as well as to improve power reliability. The CHP system may substantially reduce the costs and emissions associated with conventional forms of power generation.
- Municipal applications: CHP is ideal for municipal wastewater treatment facilities. Anaerobic digestion generates biogas in these facilities, which may be used to power onsite generators.
- Residential: CHP systems can power energy-intensive multifamily buildings or assist single-family houses fulfill their energy requirements.
CHP for big structures and infrastructures
combined heat and power generation (CHP) effectively contributes to the production of electricity for hospitals, airports, and other big institutions. CHP generating solutions not only help operators avoid substantial supply and distribution losses, but they also save 40% more fuel than separate generation and may help improve overall efficiency, profitability, and environmental responsibility.
Absorption chillers, as opposed to traditional chillers, utilize waste heat from other processes or equipment to drive a thermodynamic process that enables water to be cooled and distributed for HVAC requirements. Water is typically combined with either ammonia or lithium bromide in lieu of traditional refrigerants, with lithium bromide being the more popular choice since it is non-toxic.
Important factors to consider while building an absorption chiller
Because absorption chillers do not use electric compressors, they may offer considerable cooling capacity to a facility while not contributing to peak energy demand. The most important factor to consider when evaluating the application of such a chiller is that they do need a substantial and constant supply of waste heat to operate. Although industrial manufacturing facilities are the most apparent choices, other locations like as university campuses, bigger hospital complexes, or large hotels may frequently benefit significantly from adding an absorption chiller.
The advantages of using absorption chillers
The primary refrigerants used in absorption chillers do not contribute to global warming or ozone depletion. An absorption chiller may help the facility save money on energy, hot water, heating, and cooling. The absence of compressors in the machine reduces noise and vibration in the building, resulting in a peaceful atmosphere with excellent dependability.
An absorption chiller is powered almost completely by heat that would otherwise be wasted. It does not need electricity to produce chilled water and heat. It will not be necessary to provide nearly as much capacity in an emergency backup power system.
The Science of Absorption Chilled Water
An absorption chiller has a condenser, generator, evaporator, absorber, and heat exchanger. The absorber initially holds lithium bromide solution. It will be forced via the heat exchanger into the generator tank on the chiller’s top. The chiller’s generator will utilize heat from the sun or hot water, steam, and flue gas from other systems. Heat separates lithium bromide and water. Water steadily evaporates and rises to the condenser, while lithium bromide sinks.
The lithium bromide will return to the absorber through a conduit. The vapor will next travel via a cooling coil in the condenser. Following this, the vapor is condensed to the condenser bottom.
The water is then sent to the evaporator, where it remove heat out of the chilled water and becomes the vapor.
When water evaporates, it takes away the heat. The vapor is then absorbed by lithium bromide solution in the absorber. The mixture flows through the heat exchanger and return to the generator.
An absorption chiller produces chilled water with little energy input. It will continue to remove heat from the building throughout the heating and cooling cycle.
More about the working concept
Firstly, a mixture of lithium bromide and water in the absorber is pumped through the heat exchanger to the generator
In order to separate the mixture in the generator, heat source from hot water, steam or flue gas will change water to vapor leaving the lithium bromide behind. Then, the vapor will flow into the condenser.
The lithium bromide won’t be left as a waste. It will form as a liquid and sink to the bottom of the generator. After that, the lithium bromide liquid flows down to the absorber once more through the heat exchanger. This liquid will spray over the absorber, so it will absorb vapor in the absorber again.
Meanwhile, the vapor from the generator is condensing into a refrigerant in condenser . Because of that, it meets with a cooling coil, whose water from cooling tower flows inside to remove heat from the vapor.
Next, the refrigerant kept in a tray flow through a pipe to the evaporator. A fixed orifice controls the volume flow rate of refrigerant. Due to vacuum condition in the evaporator, the boiling temperature of water will be quite low.
Finally, the chilled water which carries all the unwanted heat from the building or any cooling process flows through the evaporator to extract the unwanted thermal energy by spraying refrigerant over the chilled water line a. Therefore, the chilled water temperature will be decreased from 12°C to 7°C and refrigerant vapor is moving to the absorber to be absorbed with absorbent agian.
Making the most of absorption chillers
While absorption chillers are superior to traditional cooling techniques in the areas we’ve previously discussed, appropriate and frequent maintenance is required for optimum operation. This is the only method to guarantee that the equipment lasts the whole 25 years. A chiller will perform flawlessly if personnel concentrate on the following areas of maintenance: controls, mechanical components, and heat transmission components. Here are a few examples of areas that need attention:
• Pump shaft seals- inspect for wear • Refrigerant leaks- the loss rate should not exceed 1%
• Heat transfer surfaces must be clean and free of sludge and scale.
• Heat exchanger tubes – cracking, pitting, and corrosion are not desired.
• Pump bearings – repair or cleaning may be required.
Choosing the Most Effective Absorption Chiller
Even if you follow all of the aforementioned maintenance methods, the equipment will degrade, and your maintenance expenses will rise. That might be the moment to update to a more contemporary, dependable, and efficient equipment. If the system is running at part load for extended periods of time, a chiller with excellent part load efficiency may be all that is required. It is also critical to properly size the chiller. A chiller that is too large for a given application would almost certainly run at a poor efficiency. If it is subjected to such pressures for a long period of time, it may develop severe issues. The chiller upgrade/selection process should be defined by a comprehensive study of operating requirements, facility type, and timeline.
Advantages of absorption chillers
It will also fit places where a peaceful atmosphere is a necessity — an absorption chiller is a silent, wear-free system owing to the absence of moving components — and requires little maintenance.
How to Install an Absorption Chiller
It is preferable to deal with a contractor that has expertise with complex systems such as absorption chillers. Experts can assist you in designing, building, and funding an absorption chiller system that makes financial sense for your business and has a solid, obvious route to generating a fair return on investment.
Basic concepts of air cooled condenser, design and trending market
Many plants are being compelled to convert existing power plants to closed-circuit cooling water systems or even dry cooling alternatives due to increasing environmental regulations and public pressure, rather than continuing to use once-through river or ocean cooling water. There just isn’t enough water available in dry areas to meet the requirements of both power plants and people.
The astute developer may also choose dry cooling early in a project since it expands plant siting choices and may substantially speed up building permit clearance because water usage concerns are eliminated. Shortening a project timeline by even six months may radically alter the economics of a project and easily offset the higher capital cost of dry cooling solutions.
Basic Concepts of Air Cooled Condenser
- ACC is a direct dry cooling system in which steam is condensed under vacuum within air cooled finned tubes.
- The main components of an ACC are ducting (for steam transport), a finned tube heat exchanger, axial fans, motors, gear boxes, piping, and tanks (for condensate collection).
- Ambient air travels over a finned tube heat exchanger utilizing a forced draft axial fan to condense the steam.
The main component of the ACC is the finned tube heat exchanger, which comes in many varieties:
- Single Row Condenser (SRC)
- Multi Row Condenser (MRC)
The basics of air-cooled condenser design
The direct dry cooling option condenses turbine exhaust steam within finned tubes that are externally cooled by ambient air rather than sea or river water, as in once-through water-cooled plants. There are two ways to circulate the ambient air for condensate cooling: utilize fans to move the air or take use of nature’s draft.
The natural draft system employs the well-known hyperbolic tower, which may reach heights of more than 300 feet and is equipped with a series of heat exchangers. The second, more known design option is the air-cooled condenser, which employs motor-driven fans rather than relying on the natural buoyancy of heated air. Due to the enormous scale of hyperbolic towers, natural draft is a specialized application for tiny locations. As a result, about 90% of the world’s dry-cooled power plants utilize an air-cooled condenser with mechanical draft.
The steam released from the turbine exhaust enters a steam distribution manifold situated on top of the ACC construction. The steam is then dispersed through the fin tube heat exchangers, which are placed in an A-shape arrangement in a “roof structure.” Steam condenses within the tubes due to the cooling impact of ambient air pulled across the exterior finned surface of the tubes by the fans. The fans are placed at the bottom of the A-shape structure. Condensate drains from the fin tube heat exchangers into condensate manifolds and then to a condensate tank before being piped to the traditional feed heating plant or the boiler.
An ACC works under vacuum in the same way as a normal surface condenser does. Air and other non- condensable gases enter the steam via a variety of sources, including leakage through the system border and the steam turbine. Non-condensable gases are evacuated in a separate part of the ACC known as the “secondary” section, which is linked to vacuum pumps or air ejectors that exhaust the non-condensable gases to the atmosphere.
The main variation between ACC designs from various manufacturers is in the features of the heat exchanger and its finned tubes. There are two kinds of heat exchangers: single-row and multi-row. There are many arguments for and against each concept’s benefits. In addition, the market offers three tube shapes: round, oval, and flat. The most advanced tubes are round and flat, and they work well in almost all situations.
Suppliers also differ in terms of fin form. In transitory circumstances, certain fin forms are less prone to fouling and mechanically more robust. Fins of the highest grade have a strong connection to the bare tube, ensuring a usable life expectancy similar to power plants.
The material used for the finned tubes is the last crucial design element. Aluminum fins brazed on flat bare tubes covered with aluminum, or oval galvanized finned tube bundles, are widely regarded as the two most dependable power plant technology.
If ACC is chosen, a plant site in China, as well as other places across the globe, does not need to be near a water supply. Instead, transmission lines and either gas distribution lines (for combined-cycle facilities) or rail lines may be optimized (for coal-fired plants). Solid fuel plants in China are often built near coal mines, which explains the country’s current interest in air cooling. Finally, if a lake, river, or coastal plant location is not needed, the cost of property may be lowered.
The market is trending up.
Europe had a relatively limited market for big or medium power plants during the 1960s and 1990s. It instead depended on massive coal-fired power facilities and nuclear reactors. In contrast, because of the scarcity of water, dry-cooling designs have grown in favor in the Middle East, China, South Africa, and the United States (at coal mine locations, in desert environs, or for other similar reasons). After 1990, the global market for dry cooling started to boom, and it has more than doubled in the last 13 years.
Given China’s massive electrical needs, the market for dry-cooling equipment is likely to remain busy in the near future. Reasonable growth is also anticipated in Europe, as several European Union nations rekindle their interest in controlling future water resources. In the foreseeable future, the Middle East (Emirate’s region) and India will undoubtedly become two extremely significant markets. Since the middle of 2005, the market in the United States has grown steadily.
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